US citizen living in Canada -

Sent: Sunday, June 04, 2006 10:01 AM
To: taxman at centa.com
Subject: RE: US citizen self-employed living in Canada part
time - David Ingram gives expert income tax & immigration help to
non-resident Americans & Canadians from New York to California to
Saudi Arabia to Mexico to China or Chile - Cross border, dual
citizen -
Thank you for answering my inquiry.  I have consulted with three
immigration lawyers in the past, but their expertise did not
cover my situation totally.  My Canadian corporation is NOT
active in Canada.  I am NOT providing services from it.  It was
formed based on the advice on one of the immigration lawyers with
whom I spoke.  I have filed the proper tax forms on it even
though there was no income to report.  My specific question is
still this.  What exactly is my designation for tax purposes in
Canada if I stay in my secondary home for more than 183 days in
the year.  Am I a "non-resident", "deemed non-resident", "deemed
resident"????? What do I call myself if I live part time in
Canada in a secondary home with a primary residence in the US and
my primary income from work in the US and NOT in Canada?  Thank
you again for all of your information which you so generously
provide to many of us.  As a NAFTA qualified consultant I know I
may do work with a company which hires me in Canada by paying the
fees at the border.  I have done this in the past, but I was not
living in a secondary home in Canada at that time.  Am I
considered "resident" in Canada because I own a secondary home in
Canada now?
Thank you so much.
 ----------------------------------------
david ingram replies:
Even if the Canadian Corporation has done no business, you have
to have filed US form 5471 for your 2005 tax return. We can do
that for you if you missed it as I suspect.
1.    If you are in Canada as a visitor but living in a fixed
base and performing services in Canada by making phone calls to
your American Clients or working over the Internet as I am doing
now, AND here more than 183 days, you have undoubtedly left
yourself open to being a taxable resident of Canada under article
IV of the US / Canada Income Tax Treaty.
2.    If you are here with a NAFTA visa and in Canada more than
183 days, you are taxable for sure on your world income.
3.    If you are here LESS than 183 days on a NAFTA (or any other
visa) with a fixed base in Canada (your residence) you are
absolutely taxable in Canada on your Canadian source income
(which includes any services by phone or internet to US clients)
whether paid by a Canadian cheque or from a US based US cheque or
bank transfer, etc.
You are NOT considered a tax resident of Canada because of your
home here.  You are a tax resident of Canada if you are here for
more than 183 days.
Canada is easy - Under the Substantial presence test, the US can
tax a Canadian on their world income if they are physically
present in the US for an average of 122 days a year for three
years in a row.  GOTO www.centa.com and read the April 1994
Newsletter in the top left hand box.
For an example of Canada's taxing a person on their world income
when the government would not even let them into Canada as a
resident for three years, read the following Judge Teskey
decision in the Dennis Lee Case. You can read the whole section
at www.centa.com - click on "US/Canada Taxation" in the second
box down on the right hand side.
WHEN ARE THEY GOING TO TAX YOU ON THE REST OF YOUR WORLD INCOME?
Canada taxes on RESIDENCY, not citizenship. Basically, if you
have been in Canada for more than 183 days (counting the hours -
one hour is only one hour, not one day as in the States), you are
taxable on your world income, no matter where it is located and
under whose name you have your assets stashed away. That is why
Howard Hughes left Canada when he did back in the 70's. If he had
stayed in Canada (even as a visitor) two more days, he would have
been taxable on his world wide holdings.
Note that in March, 1999 Denise Rondpre of  Revenue Canada
Customs Excise and Income Tax issued a policy letter to Foreign
Air Crew flying for Canadian Airlines and Air Canada. This
directive stated that it was Revenue Canada's opinion that one
hour in Canada constituted a full day in spite of the fact that
the courts have ruled against them and the law, itself, has not
changed. I do not think that this is enforceable, but you must be
aware of it.
If you are in Canada for any period and earn more than $10,000,
you must pay tax on the total amount to Canada,  or vice versa if
a Canadian is in the U.S. Entertainers and sports figures are
exempt for up to $15,000 but they are to have 15% tax withheld
from their gross salaries or remuneration (including hotel rooms,
plane tickets, car rentals, meals, etc.). Remember that even
though the first $10,000 or $15,000 above is not "taxable", you
must file a return and quote the treaty article number
specifically to claim the exemption.  The U.S. has a minimum
$1,000 fine for failure to report the treaty number to claim the
exemption, even if there is no tax owing. In practical terms,
this means you only get fined if not taxable.  (Although this was
always here, Revenue Canada rarely enforced the rule.  In this
case the enforcement laws DID change in March, 1998 and the US
resident MUST file if working in Canada.)
Remember also, this refers to "where" the work is performed, not
where the money comes from.  Therefore, if you worked in San
Francisco for one month for your Canadian employer and were paid
$6,000 U.S. by Bell Telephone in Ontario, you would have to file
a California return reporting your world income and exempting the
amount earned in Canada and would have some tax to pay to
California on the $6,000.  On the Federal return, you would file
for an exemption under Article XV of the U.S. / CANADA Tax Treaty
and pay no federal tax to the U.S.  You would then claim a credit
for the California tax paid on your Canadian income tax return.
You should also get BELL to agree to pay the $400 to $1,000
accountant's bill to prepare these complicated tax returns.
The U.S. taxes on citizenship first and residency or physical
presence second. If you have another tax home, and are just an
extensive visitor in the States, you can escape U.S. tax on your
income from other countries. However, if you renounce your other
tax home or become a "green card" holder or are in the U.S. for
more than 183 days in one year, you are subject to U.S. income
tax on your world income.
The U.S. taxes its citizens and green card holders wherever they
are and no matter what they are doing. The U.S. taxes its
citizens in Canada and they will tax them in the North Sea. The
U.S. will add on the benefit of housing allowances, car
allowances, servants, and education allowances for people who
have not been in the U.S. for twenty years but who are still U.S.
citizens.  If you want the benefit of U.S. Citizenship, you pays
your taxes.) The first $70,000 U.S. of income earned from
personal  services (as opposed to capital) is exempt if you have
been out of the country for a full calendar year in one test or
for 330 out of 365 days in another test using a fiscal year.
However, being "exempt" does NOT mean that you do not have to
file a tax return. You must still file your U.S. 1040, report the
Canadian Earnings in U.S. dollars and claim the "up to $72,000
U.S." by filing a form 2555 with the 1040. If you have
investment, [INCLUDING AMOUNTS EARNED WITHIN YOUR CANADIAN RRSP],
rental, royalty, or any income other than from services, you must
also report the income in U.S. dollars.  Since you will have paid
tax to Canada first, you will file a Form 1116 with the 1040 to
claim your foreign tax credit. A separate Form 1116 must be filed
for each kind of income, i.e. rental, pension, dividends, etc.
The RRSP earnings may be exempted under ARTICLE XXIX.5 of the
U.S. / CANADA Income Tax Treaty 1980.
Social security (FICA) taxes usually do not have to be paid to
the U.S. under Article XXIX.4 of the U.S./CANADA Income Tax
treaty or Article V of the CANADA / U.S. Social Security
Agreement.  (I sure hope all this is impressing you).
Therefore, a U.S. citizen living in Canada who had a rental
house, a job, an RRSP, some dividends and some capital gains from
the sale of stock would file his or her Canadian return first and
then file a U.S. return with these forms:
* 1040 - is the basic return for a citizen or resident of the
U.S. or landed immigrant of the U.S. (commonly called a "green
card" holder).
* Schedule A - to claim itemized deductions if needed
* Schedule B - to report the dividend income
* Schedule D - to report the capital gains
* Schedule E - to report the rental income
* 4562 - to report depreciation on the rental house
* 1116 - (maybe two foreign tax credit forms) - one for any
income from services over
    $72,000, one for the rental, capital gains, and dividend
income.
* 1116(AMT) - two more forms to calculate the foreign tax credit
for Alternative Minimum Tax purposes (AMT)
* 2555 - to exempt up to $72,000 U.S. of earnings from services
* 6251 - Alternative Minimum tax form
* FICA (Social Security) exemption - to exempt income from U.S.
FICA
* RRSP election forms to exempt income earned within the RRSP
from current U.S. income tax until withdrawal
* TDF-90 form(s) - to report foreign bank accounts including
Canadian RRSP accounts which are considered "foreign trusts" -
failure to file this form can result in up  to a $500,000 fine
PLUS up to five years in jail
He or she might also have to file either of the following two
specialty forms when he or she owns shares in corporations.
* 5471 form - If you are a U.S. citizen and 5% or more owner of a
Canadian corporation. Failure to file this form can create fines
of $1,000 every 30 days up to $25,000
* 5472 form - If you are a Canadian who owns a U.S. corporation -
failure to file this one has fines of up to $30,000 every 30
days.
Even though you or your friend have not filed your U.S. return
for years, you have not necessarily "got away with it". At least
once every two weeks, a U.S. Citizen arrives "a little
distraught" because the IRS has caught up to them.
And the biggest problem is that they can tax you for many years,
whereas you might only be allowed to claim your exemptions and
credits for two or three years back.
For instance, In January, 1995,  I had a "new" U.S. citizen
client bring me a U.S. Tax bill for $194,000 for 1986, 1987, and
1988.  He had been "caught" because he had applied for a new
passport.
The tax was on the gross income he had received in those years
when he sold off a stock portfolio (remember the crash).
Although he made about $40,000 to start, he lost after the crash
and ended up $30,000 down.  A Canadian accountant told him he did
not have to file U.S. returns because he was living in Canada.
In another case, a lady who had come to see me ten years ago and
had gone to see someone else because (this is what she told me)
they had a fancier office, has suddenly received a rude
awakening.  She and her husband have been losing money on the
rental of a large apartment complex in Seattle.  The penalty for
not filing and reporting this rental income is up to $10,000 a
year for not filing on non-resident rentals and 30% of the gross
rent with no expenses allowed.  In this case the rent is over
$500,000 a year and the total penalty and tax could be $2,000,000
with interest.  The other accountant told her she did not need to
file if she was losing money.  I had quoted her $500 to do her
return ten years ago and told her she had to file the return.
The accountant with the fancier office told her she did not have
to file because she lost money.  (That advice is wrong in both
countries by the way). Even $1,500 a year would be cheaper than
the tax bill coming up.
If you are still claiming the protection and advantages of your
U.S. citizenship, do yourself a favour. Bring your U.S. income
tax returns up to date from 1987 to the present.
It is rare that you will have to pay tax to the States. Higher
Canadian tax rates mean that, with the exception of Capital
Gains, the exemptions and foreign tax credits "almost always" eat
up the U.S. tax.
If you do have Canadian Capital Gains, it is usually important
that you do very accurate calculations to determine the tax. If
you claim the $ 100,000 exemption in Canada, the U.S. does not
recognize it and will tax you anyway. Better to save the
exemption or in some cases restructure the deal. Restructuring
might be as mundane as selling a business for less purchase price
and taking more wages to remain as an advisor.
That takes care of the majority of U.S. Citizens in Canada. Now
to the Canadian "visitor" to the U.S. - note that these ten year
old "NEW RULES" mean that many "Canadian Snowbirds" are taxable
in the U.S. on their World Income, even though they are only in
the U.S. for four months a year.
What happens is that after three, four, five or ten years of
wintering in Florida, or Texas, or Arizona, or California, the
Canadian visitor joins clubs, buys property, attends meetings,
becomes active in a condo association and suddenly finds their
"CENTER (CENTRE) OF VITAL INTERESTS" is as much or more in the
U.S. as it is in CANADA. Under those circumstances, the U.S.
government has every right to tax you.
At the back of the book around page 156, I have reproduced the
April, 1994 edition of the CEN-TAPEDE newsletter for more
information on this.
Long Time Visitors
For long time visitors to the U.S., the IRS uses the 183 day rule
that entitles most countries to tax anyone present in the country
for more than 183 days. However, they are far harder on their 183
day rule than Canada is. The U.S. counts an "hour" as a "WHOLE
DAY". So, if you arrive in Hawaii at 10:50 PM, that is a day, and
if you leave at 1:00 AM, that is a day.
In addition, to arrive at the 183 days, the U.S. looks at the two
preceding years. You have to take 1/3 of the days you were
present in the U.S. in the preceding year and add it to this
year's days and then you have to take 1/6 of the days in the year
preceding that and add it to this year's days.
Soooooooo! if you were in the States for six months in 1998, that
counts as 1 month, or 30 days for 2000. If you were in the States
for three months in 1999, that counts as 1 month or 30 days for
2000. You are now limited to stay in the States for 120 (maybe
122) days in 2000, after which you become taxable on your world
income unless you can show a tax home in another country (as in
the treaty provisions above). There is a form called an 8840 that
you may file to claim exemption from this if you can show that
your closer connection is to Canada.
This is tough to do however. As I was writing this little part on
Sept 29, 95, I received a call from a 55 year old man in Alberta.
He has a home in Canada, is retired already and spends the
winters golfing at his golf course condominium in Arizona.   In
Arizona, he golfs, plays cards, goes to church and visits with
friends in the same golf course country club estate.  In Canada,
he visits his kids in B.C. and travels in his motorhome.  He
can't wait to get back down south where he now lives in his mind
and which is fast becoming his centre of vital interest and
"closer connection."
His Canadian friends have died, divorced, moved away, are still
working or go south to  different places to spend their winters.
His closer connection,  "his home" without much doubt, is now in
the U.S.
      So what are the rules?
      Well, to leave Canada for tax purposes, you must give up
clubs, bank accounts, memberships, driving licences, provincial
health care plans, family allowance payments (if you are a
returning resident, you can continue to get Family Allowance out
of the country), your car, and furniture. You can keep a house
here as an investment and rent it out, but it must be rented on
lease terms of a year or more. And you MUST have an agent sign an
NR6 for you (see example). This NR6 has the Canadian Resident
AGENT ** guarantee the Canadian Government that if YOU do not pay
your tax to Canada, the AGENT WILL. Even after fulfilling the
foregoing, the Canadian government can still tax you or "try" to
tax you on your income out of the country. If you are being paid
by a Canadian Company, they can quite often succeed.
      Even though you can collect family allowance out of the
country, don't! One client's wife found out that she could get
family allowance out of the country if she said they were coming
back to Canada. She got some $3,000 of family allowance and cost
the family some $80,000 in income tax when they came back to
Canada from Brazil. I will never forget the husband's expression
when he found out why he had been reassessed and I will never
forget his wife's explanation. She said he was a skinflint and
never gave her any money. The total episode cost them their
house.
      ** The "agent" referred to above can be a friend, relative,
or a business such as ours. We charge a minimum of $40.00 per
month to be an "AGENT" for an NR-6 filing. This $480 per year is
"in addition" to any other fees but "well worth it" of course. It
stops your mother, father, brother, next door neighbour or
ex-best-friend from being plagued by paperwork they do not
understand.
      OUT OF CANADA AND RESIDENT - IN CANADA AND NON-RESIDENT
      It is possible to be physically "in Canada" and be treated
as a Non-Resident and it is possible to be out of the country for
seven years, or never have even lived in Canada, but wanted to,
and be taxed as a Canadian resident as the following three cases
show. In case you missed it, the reason for the different rulings
is the "INTENT" of the parties involved.  Wolf Bergelt intended
to leave Canada.  David MacLean was only working out of the
country.  He still maintained a residence and could not ever
become a resident of Saudi Arabia anyway. Dennis Lee "wanted" to
live in Canada.
      In 1986, Wolf Bergelt won non-resident status before Judge
Collier of the Federal Court, even though he was only out of the
country for four months and his family stayed behind to sell his
house. He had given up his memberships, kept only one bank
account and rented an apartment in California until his house in
Canada was sold. Four months after his move, his company advised
him that he was being transferred back to Canada. Judge Collier
said his move was a permanent (although short) move and he was a
non-resident for tax purposes for those four months.
      In 1985, David MacLean lost his claim for non-residence
status even though he was gone for seven years. He kept a house
and investments in Canada and returned a couple of times a year
to visit parents. He had even been to the Tax Office and received
a letter on January 29, 1980 stating that his Canadian Employer
could waive tax deductions because he was a non-resident.
However, he did not advise his banks, etc. that he was a
non-resident so that they would withhold tax, he did not rent his
house out on a long term lease and he did not do any of the
things that makes a person a "NON-RESIDENT". Judge Brule of the
Tax court of Canada said that he thought Mr. MacLean had stumbled
on the non-resident status by chance rather than by design. In
other words, to become a non-resident of Canada, you must become
a bone fide resident of another country.  As a rule, only a
Muslim born in Saudi Arabia to Saudi Arabian parents can become a
Saudi Arabian citizen.  The best that David MacLean can hope for
is that he has a Saudi Arabian temporary work permit.
      In other words, when a person leaves a place, they usually
leave and establish a new identity where they are because the
"new place" is where they live now. Trying to "look" like a
non-resident is not the same as "BEING" a non-resident - think
about it.
      In 1989, Denis Lee won part but lost most of his claim for
non-resident status. He was a British Subject who worked on
offshore oil rigs. He maintained a room at his parents house in
England and held a mortgage on his ex-wife's house in England.
For the years 1981, 82 and 83 he did not pay income tax anywhere.
in 1981 he married a Canadian and she bought a house in Canada in
June of 1981. On September 13, 1981, he guaranteed her mortgage
at the bank and swore an affidavit that he was "not" a
non-resident of Canada. [As I have said in the capital gains
section of this book, bank documents will get you every time.]
During this time he had a Royal Bank account in Canada and the
Caribbean but no Canadian driver's licences or club memberships,
etc.
      Judge Teskey said:
      "The question of residency is one of fact and depends on
the specific facts of each case. The following is a list of some
of the indicia relevant in determining whether an individual is
resident in Canada for Canadian income tax purposes. It should be
noted that no one of any group of two or three items will in
themselves establish that the individual is resident in Canada.
However, a number of the following factors considered together
could establish that the individual is a resident of Canada for
Canadian income tax purposes":
        a.. - past and present habits of life;
        b.. - regularity and length of visits in the jurisdiction
asserting residence;
        c.. - ties within the jurisdiction;
        d.. - ties elsewhere;
        e.. - permanence or otherwise of purposes of stay;
        f.. - ownership of a dwelling in Canada or rental of a
dwelling on a long-term basis (for example, a lease of one or
more years);
        g.. - residence of spouse, children and other dependent
family members in a dwelling maintained by the individual in
Canada;
        h.. - memberships with Canadian churches, or synagogues,
recreational and social clubs, unions and professional
organizations (left out mosques);
        i.. - registration and maintenance of automobiles, boats
and airplanes in Canada;
        j.. - holding credit cards issued by Canadian financial
institutions and other commercial entities including stores, car
rental agencies, etc.;
        k.. - local newspaper subscriptions sent to a Canadian
address;
        l.. - rental of Canadian safety deposit box or post
office box;
        m.. - subscriptions for life or general insurance
including health insurance through a Canadian insurance company;
        n.. - mailing address in Canada;
        o.. - telephone listing in Canada;
        p.. - stationery including business cards showing a
Canadian address;
        q.. - magazine and other periodical subscriptions sent to
a Canadian address;
        r.. - Canadian bank accounts other than a non-resident
account;
        s.. - active securities accounts with Canadian brokers;
        t.. - Canadian drivers licence;
        u.. - membership in a Canadian pension plan;
        v.. - holding directorships of Canadian corporations;
        w.. - membership in Canadian partnerships;
        x.. - frequent visits to Canada for social or business
purposes;
        y.. - burial plot in Canada;
        z.. - legal documentation indicating Canadian residence;
        aa.. - filing a Canadian income tax return as a Canadian
resident;
        ab.. - ownership of a Canadian vacation property;
        ac.. - active involvement with business activities in
Canada;
        ad.. - employment in Canada;
        ae.. - maintenance or storage in Canada of personal
belongings including clothing, furniture, family pets, etc.;
        af.. - obtaining landed immigrant status or appropriate
work permits in Canada;
        ag.. - severing substantially all ties with former
country of residence.
      "The Appellant claims that he did not want to be a resident
of Canada during the years in question. Intention or free choice
is an essential element in domicile, but is  entirely absent in
residence."
      Even though Dennis Lee was denied residency by immigration
until 1985 (his passport was stamped and limited the number of
days he could stay in the country) and he did not purchase a car
until 1984, or get a drivers licence until 1985, Judge Teskey
ruled that he was a non-resident until September 13, 1981 (the
day he guaranteed the mortgage and signed the bank guarantee) and
a resident thereafter.
      My point is made. Residency for "TAX PURPOSES" has nothing
to do with legal presence in the country claiming the tax. It is
a question of fact. My thanks to Judge Teskey for an excellent
list. The italics are mine and refer to the items which I usually
see people trying to "hold on to" after they leave and are trying
to become non-residents. No single item will make you a resident,
but there is a point where the preponderance of "numbers" leap
out and say, "He / She is a resident of Canada, no matter what he
/ she says."
      The case above is not unusual in any way. It is a fairly
typical situation in my office.
      In 1990, John Hale was taxed as a resident on $25,000 of
directors fees he had received from his Canadian Employer and on
$125,000 he received for exercising a share stock option given to
him when he had been a resident of Canada (the option, not the
stock). Judge Rouleau of the Federal Court ruled that section
15(1) of the Great Britain / Canada Tax Convention did not
protect the $125,000 as it was not "salaries, wages, and other
remuneration". It was, however a benefit received by virtue of
employment within the meaning of section 7(1)(b) of the act.
      Even a car you do not own can make you a resident as the
next sailor found out.
      In 1988, FrederickReed was claimed by the Canadian
Government as one of their own. He lived on board ship and shared
an apartment with a friend in Bermuda but only occasionally. He
also stayed with his parents in Canada when visiting his employer
in Halifax. Judge Bonner of the Tax court ruled that he could not
claim his place of employ or the ship as his residence and just
because he did not have a fixed abode, did not make him a
non-resident. He was also the beneficial owner of a car in Canada
which even though of minor consequence, served to add to his
Canadian Residency. He had in fact borrowed money from a credit
union to buy the car, even though it was registered in his
father's name. He had maintained his Canadian Driver's licence as
well.
      An interesting case in June, 1989 involved Deborah and
James Provias who left Canada in October of 1984. They had sold a
multiple unit building to James' father on September 21, 1984 but
the statement of adjustments did not take place until December 1,
1984. They tried to write off rental losses and a terminal loss
against other income as `departing Canadians'. Judge Christie of
the Tax Court ruled that they had left before the sale and were
not entitled to the terminal loss or another capital loss as
these could only be applied against income earned in Canada from
October 13, 1984 (the day they left) to November 30, 1984 (the
day before the sale) and there was no income, only a rental loss.
      But June, 1989 was a good month for Henry Hewitt. He had
been a non-resident living in Libya for four years and received
some back pay after returning to Canada. DNR tried to tax him on
the money but Judge Mogan of the Tax Court came to the rescue. He
ruled that although Canadians were usually taxable on money when
received, that assumed that the money itself was taxable in
Canada, which was not true in this case.
      In 1989, James Ferguson lost his claim for non-residency
status but from the information, it didn't stand a chance anyway.
He had been in Saudi Arabia on a series of one year contracts for
four years. His wife remained employed in Canada, and he kept his
house, car, driver's licence, union membership, and master
plumber's licence. Judge Sarchuk ruled that he had always
intended to return to Canada and was a resident.
      A similar situation involved John and Johnnie M. Eubanks in
the United States. He was working on an offshore oil rig in
Nigeria with a Nigerian work permit and attempted to claim
non-resident status for the purposes of exempting the foreign
earned income exclusion. His wife was in the United States at all
times and because he worked 28 days on and 28 days off, he
returned to the U.S. for his rest periods using 4 days for travel
and 24 days for rest with his family. He did not spend any 330
day period (out of a year) in Nigeria and only had a residency
permit for the purposes of working in Nigeria. Judge Scott ruled
he was a resident of the U.S. and taxed him some $20,000 with
another $6,000 penalties and interest.
      The Tax departments in Canada and the U.S. issue
Interpretation Bulletins and Information Circulars and Guidance
Pamphlets. These documents sometimes get people in trouble
because the individual reads the good part and doesn't pay any
attention to the exceptions. The following case ran contrary to a
Guidance Pamphlet issued by the IRS.
      On and Off-shore Oil rigs were involved with William and
Margaret Mount and Jesse and Mary Wells. William and Jesse worked
in the United Arab Emirates. However, they kept their homes and
families in Louisiana and kept their driver's licences in
Louisiana and voted in Louisiana. No evidence was shown that they
had tried to settle in The United Arab Emirates. Judge Jacobs
turned down claimed exclusions of approximately $75,000 each.
      There isn't any question about what oil rig people talk
about on oil rigs. It has to be "how to beat the tax man".
Unfortunately, they all seem to think it is easy. Another such
story follows.
      In 1989, Clarence Ritchie found out that bona fide
residence means just what it says. You cannot be a non-resident
of the U.S. for tax purposes if you are not a bona fide resident
of another country. He was working on the Mobil Oil Pipeline in
Saudi Arabia and although when he left he was married with a
couple of kids, by the time he returned permanently, he was a
happily divorced man. Judge Scott ruled that though he did not
have an abode in the United States, he had not established one in
Saudi Arabia and therefore was not entitled to the foreign earned
income exclusion which requires you to be away for 330 days out
of 365. He had worked a 42 days on, 21 days off schedule and
usually returned to the U.S. for his days off although he did
spend time in Tunisia, England, Italy and Greece.
      On a final note, as explained on page 143 of the "PINK"
17th edition of my ULTIMATE TAX BOOK, it is possible to have
three countries after you for tax. If you are thinking of taking
a job because a recruiter told you the money is tax free, think
twice and check three times with competent individuals about what
the rules "really are". No government likes giving up the right
to tax its citizens.
      DEBT SECURITIES - BANK ACCOUNTS
      Non-residents of Canada with investments in Canada are
subject to a 25% non-resident withholding tax on any money paid
to them while they are out of the Canada. Therefore, if they have
$10,000 in the Bank of Montreal and they live in Argentina, The
Bank of Montreal must withhold 25 cents out of every dollar of
interest paid to the account. Most tax treaty countries such as
Great Britain, Germany, the United States, and Australia have a
reciprocal agreement with Canada that limits the withholding to
15%. So we have the anomaly that a Canadian with money in a bank
in the U.S. has no withholding but an American with money in a
Canadian Bank has 15 cents out of every dollar withheld as a
foreign withholding tax. The American would report his interest
on schedule A of his 1040 tax return and claim the tax withheld
as a foreign tax credit on a form 1116.
      RENTAL PROPERTIES - CANADA - OWNED BY U.S. RESIDENT
      More important perhaps is the problem with rental
properties in Canada. When owned by a non-resident, they are
subject to a 25% withholding (or 15% if living in Bangladesh)
tax. If the renter does not pay this tax,  the government can
come along two years later and demand the tax.
      Imagine the consternation of a tenant of a house in the
British Properties in West Vancouver, or Rosedale in Toronto.
Assume the tenant has been paying $2,000 a month for a $500,000
house owned by a Hong Kong resident. After three years of paying
$24,000 a year to the `non-resident', they finally buy a house
and move. Two months later, there is a knock on the door and a
National Revenue representative is standing there demanding 25%
of $72,000 for NON-RESIDENT withholding tax (this is a true story
by the way, only the owner was in London).
      There is a way around this problem. The tenant can ask to
see, or rather DEMAND to see a copy of the landlord's filed and
accepted NR6 form. (See forms in back of book). This form allows
the tenant or agent of the landlord to deduct a lesser amount (or
nil if a loss) than 25% of the gross rent. It allows for expenses
to be taken off and the tax can then be withheld at 25% of the
net, rather than the gross. The property management division of
david ingram & Associates Realty Inc. files about 300 of these
NR6 forms a year. (This is only necessary if you are paying
directly to a landlord whom you KNOW to be a non-resident of
Canada.  If you are paying to an agent or Canadian Resident, you
are okay.)
      Please note, the NR6 MUST BE FILED BEFORE the first rent
cheque is received or 25% of the gross rent must be remitted. For
years, we were in the habit of filing `this years' NR6 late with
last years tax return. In 1989, National Revenue stopped
accepting this sloppy practice and demanded them on time.
      IF YOU SIGN THIS FORM AS AN AGENT, AND THE OWNER DOES NOT
FILE HIS OR HER RETURN BY JUNE 30TH OF THE FOLLOWING YEAR, YOU,
THE AGENT, ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE 30% OF THE GROSS RENT WITH NO
REFUND PROVISIONS FOR ANYONE.
      RENTAL PROPERTIES - UNITED STATES - OWNED BY A CANADIAN
      If paying 25% of the GROSS rent to Canada sounds bad, cheer
up. The United States taxes the Canadian 30% in the same
situation. To avoid this, the Canadian needs to notify the U.S.
Government that he wishes to be taxed as a business rental house
on the "net income" received. But if you do not notify the IRS in
advance, the IRS CAN tax you at the 30% of gross rate.
      SALE OF REAL ESTATE - IN CANADA
      The situation is different with the sale of REAL ESTATE. A
non-resident with property in Canada who sells the property is
subject to a withholding tax of 33 1/3% on the GROSS sale price
unless they fill out a form 2062A (sample at back of book) and
submit it to Revenue Canada for approval. You cannot use the form
in the book, it is the wrong size. It must be obtained from
Revenue Canada and filled out in quintuplet (5 copies). It does
not have to be filed before the sale unless you need the money
immediately to close a back to back deal - the lawyer can keep
money in his trust account until the form is approved.
      CAUTION - This is serious, a Realtor and lawyer who were
not aware of this fact are at possible risk of law suit from a
purchaser. The purchaser was called upon to pay 25% of the
purchase price of the property to Revenue Canada for failure to
withhold. The rate was 25% up to 1987, 30% for 1988 and 1989, and
is now 33 1/3%). There is a proposal to make it 50% unless the
form 2062 is filed. The situation is serious enough that one
should not accept a person's declaration that they are a resident
as sufficient reason to "not withhold tax". In one case, the
purchaser and the real estate agent drove the vendor to the
airport to fly back to Hong Kong. The vendor is not a resident of
Canada. Is it any wonder that National Revenue wants to collect
the tax from the purchaser and the purchaser wants to sue the
real estate agent and lawyer. "THE ONLY SAFETY IN THIS SITUATION
IS FOR THE PURCHASER TO REQUEST A T2062 EXEMPTION FROM REVENUE
CANADA."
      What form T2062 does is allows you to calculate the actual
gain WHICH WILL BE EARNED AND TAXABLE. The purchaser may then
only DEDUCT/pay a withholding tax on the taxable gain, not the
gross sale price. Revenue Canada is wonderful when it comes to
quick approval of this form. I would love to give out names of
people who have gone overboard to accommodate clients but they
have said, "NO, NO, NO! " (Please note. Even though Real Estate
Commissions and other costs of sale are deductible when
calculating the actual taxable income for tax purposes on a
return, they may NOT be deducted for the purposes of the T2062).
      If you are having trouble with a sale or purchase with a
non-resident, feel free to call upon the services of our office.
David Ingram at (604) 649-4755 or FAX (604) 649-4759 is available
to assist your lawyer or real estate agent. In addition, if you
need the services of a lawyer for this special service, David
Stoller, LLB shares office premises with us and is available at
the same numbers.
      SALE OF UNITED STATES REAL ESTATE
      The U.S. government does the same thing when a Canadian is
selling property in the states. They have a 10% withholding tax
on the gross as well and there is usually a state government
withholding of another 3 1/2%. However, all is not lost. The U.S.
government has a form as well. It is form 8288-B and is
reproduced at the back of this book as well, next to the 2062.
You can use this form or a photocopy to request a reduction or
total cancellation of the 10% withholding. For instance, if you
inherited a condo in Wheeling, West Virginia and sold it right
away, the estate tax would be paid already and you would have
inherited it at its present value. There would be no capital
gains expected and therefore, you could get the withholding
cancelled.
      In addition, if the property is being transferred for
$300,000 or less and is being used as a personal residence by the
purchaser, and the purchaser will sign a letter saying that they
intend to live it for six months or more a year for the next two
years as a principal residence, they or the escrow agent do not
have liability for withholding tax. However, it is still my
opinion that if on either side of this problem, one should read
pages 17 and 18 of the 1990 edition of Publication 17 for more
information and following that format, write to the Internal
Revenue Service with an 8288 and ask for the exemption formally.
Remember also that individual states like California also have a
withholding of (California 3 1/3%) non-resident tax and it is
necessary to write to them as well.
      (After all, why should the average person get stuck with
withholding tax in what is an extremely sophisticated tax
matter.)
      REMEMBER THOUGH, Real estate capital gain profits from
sales in the US by Non-residents are subject to ALTERNATIVE
MINIMUM TAX. The rate started at 17% in 1987 and is 26% today in
1999.
      That means that if you had bought a property for $10,000
and sold it now for $110,000 and had $11,000 tax withheld, you
will; actually owe the IRS another $15,000 when you file your tax
return.  When we prepare these returns, about one/half get
refunds, half pay more. See my June, July and August newsletter
for more information.  (Page ???? in this book).
      The manual says the preparation of the 8288A and B takes a
total of 4 hours for the first one you do (i.e. record keeping is
1 hr, 33 min; learning the law of the form is l hr, 43 min;
preparing the form is 37 min; and copying, mailing, etc. is
another 20 min). It is mailed to:
      The Director
      Philadelphia Service Center
      P. O. Box 21086
      Philadelphia, PA 19114
      Again, if you are having trouble or cannot find anyone
locally to help, call our office at (604) 649-4755.
      WATCH OUT AMERICAN CITIZENS
      LIVING IN CANADA
      All American citizens must file American tax returns for as
long as they remain citizens of the U.S.A. This means that even
if you are a landed immigrant in Canada and intend to take out
citizenship, you must continue to file American returns. This may
seem a needless task, but if you don't do this and you suddenly
decide to take a trip out of the country, you may have problems
obtaining a passport. The only place you can get a passport is
from the American Embassy or Consulate and they want to know if
you have filled out your American returns. If not, they could
refuse to issue your passport. I have seen several exotic trips
ruined because of this.
      Because of exemptions and foreign tax credits there is
usually no (or very little) additional tax to pay, but you must
still file an American return. Since the first edition of this
book, it has become obvious that if there is a lot of interest,
royalties, dividends, rents, or business income, the Alternative
Minimum Tax will kick in and only allow 90% of the foreign tax
credit when the incomes exceed $45,000 for a joint return,
$33,750 for a single person, and $22,250 for a married person
filing separately. If the income is only earnings and less than
$70,000 and the rest of the income is under the stated amounts
above there should be no U.S. tax.
      EXAMPLE
      Let's assume you are a retired U.S. citizen living in
Canada with an income of $10,000 U.S. Social security and $10,000
in interest from the United States. You have Canadian interest of
$10,000 and a Canadian Pension of $15,000 from University of
Toronto and $7,000 from Canada Pension Plan and Old Age Security.
Oh yes, you get  $3,000 of interest from England for a total of
$55,000 of which $50,000 is taxable income (this is a true story
by the way).
      Where do you pay your tax? (all money in Canadian Funds)
      Great Britain will take $450.00 at source (15%).
      You will prepare your U.S. return reporting your U.S.
Social Security ($5,000 of it will likely be taxable because of
your total income [85% is taxable over about $25,000]), your U.S.
interest, your Canadian interest, the British estate, and your
Canadian pensions. Calculate your tax. Then `prorate' the tax
among the income from the different countries. i.e. if your total
tax was $10,000, then the Great Britain portion would be $3,000 /
50,000 x $10,000 = $600. The Canadian Portion would be $32,000 /
50,000 x $10,000 = $6,400 and the American portion would be
15,000 / 50,000 x $10,000 = $3,000. (This is not perfect - the
real calculation is done on form 1116 and has prorated
exemptions, etc. calculated in but you get the idea I hope. You
will prepare your Canadian return reporting exactly the same
amounts except that you will report the whole $10,000 Social
Security and claiming $1,500 as a 15% deduction on line 256. If
your tax was the same $10,000 in Canada, then the percentages
would be the same (for the example only).
      Now you do not want to pay $10,000 to Canada plus $10,000
to the States plus the $450 to Great Britain. That would be
double and even triple taxation on the Great Britain money.
      What you do is file the U.S. return reporting all the money
and calculating the tax owing of $10,000. You would then fill out
an 1116 Foreign Tax Credit form and claim credit for the $450
paid to Great Britain. This would give you a credit of $450
against your $10,000 tax and you would now owe $9,550 to the U.S.
You would then do another Form 1116 (maybe one each for pensions
and interest) for the Canadian Income. In this example, that
would result in a credit for $6,400 for the tax paid to Canada
and you would now owe ($9,550 - $6,400) $3,150 to the U.S.
government.
      In Canada, you would do the same calculations and get about
the same result. The one place that you would pay double taxation
(or triple) would be that you are paying an extra $150 to BOTH
the U.S. and Canada on the British Estate Income. If we find
these situations we recommend efforts be made to transfer the
corpus of the estate to one of the taxing countries. On the U.S.
return, we cannot claim credit for the extra $150 to Canada
because the Estate did not come from Canada, and on the Canadian
Return, we cannot claim credit for the $150 extra paid to the
U.S. because the money did not come from the States.
      If you do not want to attempt these rather involved
calculations, mail the paperwork to me at:
      THE CEN-TA Group
      Today, for instance, tax work arrived from Athens, Greece,
Auckland, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Honolulu, and Brussels.
      AMERICAN HUSBAND - CANADIAN WIFE
      This was a 1990 analysis of the situation of a Very High
Profile couple who desired to live and work in the United States
and Canada. Unfortunately, it does not matter any more.  They
were divorced, he remarried, and he has since died of cancer.
      THE CEN-TA Group
      taxman at centa.com
      December 11, 1990
      My Understanding:
      I understand that your husband is a U.S. Citizen with
landed immigrant status in Canada and that you are a Canadian
Citizen with a U.S. Green Card.
      I also understand that the desire of both is to continue
having the benefit of both worlds, i.e. the ability to move back
and forth across the International Border and work in either
place with no fuss.
      While the following is not written in stone, the general
tone is what would usually be followed:
      Re: Wife
      Although leaving Canada and obtaining a U.S. "Green Card"
usually stops the taxation of World Income by Canada, it will not
stop Canadian Taxation, if close ties are maintained with Canada
either through family, marriage, investments in Canada, or the
providing of services in Canada. Page 183 of my 1990 Income Tax
Book points out how the countries arrange taxation between them.
      The convention implies that only one country will tax.
Nothing is further from reality. What usually happens in the case
of a person who is maintaining close ties with both countries
(legally or not), is that BOTH countries will tax and honor
foreign taxes paid to the other country on income which was
sourced in that other country. The U.S. allows the credits on a
form 1116, Canada allows the credits on a Schedule 1.
      The previous paragraph was written with the understanding
that the general application of taxation by Canada is that if a
person leaves the country, they are no longer taxable to Canada
on their world income. This premise is different from that of the
U.S. and of course your husband is caught in that web and the old
Charlie Chaplin rule (see end of section)
      Re: HUSBAND - U.S. CITIZEN
      Your husband is a U.S. Citizen which means he is taxable on
his world income anywhere he goes with some exemptions. If he
establishes a bona fide residence in another country (i.e.
Canada), he may exempt up to $70,000 of employment type income
from U.S. Income Tax. This is a pro-rated figure, so that if he
was physically in the U.S. for 180 days, only 185/365 x $70,000
would be exempt or an amount of $35,479.45.
      Because he has landed immigrant status in Canada, the
husband is also taxable on his world wide income by Canada.
Because the Canadian Income Tax Rate is higher, if the source of
funds is Canada, usually there is no tax to pay to the U.S.
because the foreign tax credits on Form 1116 will usually take
care of them. The exception is for Capital Gains. We only tax 75%
of capital gains and the first $100,000 is tax free. Therefore,
without proper planning, a U.S. citizen can find himself paying
double taxation by claiming the exemption in Canada, paying tax
to the states without a credit, and then when the exemption has
run out in Canada, paying tax to Canada in other years.
      Re: LANDED IMMIGRANT STATUS
      (BOTH COUNTRIES)
      This is a delicate matter. It is very easy for either party
to lose their status in the other country by their actions.
      For instance, one famous actor we all know lost his landed
status in Canada when he was away for two years without notifying
the Immigration Department and getting permission to be away as a
returning resident.
      Because of this fact, it is important that the parties
understand that establishing a bona fide residence in Canada
could cause the wife to lose her status in the U.S., and going
for citizenship for the wife in the U.S. could cause the husband
to lose his status in Canada.
      i.e. It is a conundrum. How does the husband say to Canada,
Hi, here I am, full time to become a citizen, while the wife is
saying the same thing in the U.S. I suggest that for U.S.
purposes, the husband not worry about Bona Fide Residence in
Canada.
      It does not need to be a problem though. It seems to me
that you have the best of both worlds as it is. By moving back
and forth on a fairly regular basis and by properly preparing tax
returns in both countries and claiming foreign tax credits, you
can have your cake and eat it too.
      Yours truly
      the CEN-TA Group
      david ingram
      British Columbia Income Tax, Real Estate & Immigration
      P.S. The Charlie Chaplin Rule is:  The United States will
continue to tax income, estates and gifts associated with U.S.
citizens for ten years after they give up their citizenship
unless they can prove that they did not give up their citizenship
for tax reasons (what other reason could there be).
     Ask an Expert
              a.. Taxation
              b.. Immigration
              c.. Real Estate
              d.. Investment
              e.. Pensions
              f.. Tax havens
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-----------------------------------------------------------------
-------------
  From:  <taxman at centa.com>
  Reply-To:  <taxman at centa.com>
  To:  <Subject:  US citizen self-employed living in Canada part
time - David Ingram gives expert income tax & immigration help to
non-resident Americans & Canadians from New York to California to
Saudi Arabia to Mexico to China or Chile - Cross border, dual
citizen - out
  Date:  Tue, 30 May 2006 22:29:53 -0700
  >
   >My_question_is: Applicable to both US and Canada
  >Subject:        US citizen self-employed living in Canada part
time
  >Expert:         taxman at centa.com
  >Date:           Monday May 29, 2006
  >Time:           06:45 AM -0700
  >
  >QUESTION:
  >
  >As a self-employed consultant and not eligible for landed
immigrant status
  >in Canada because of my age (I don't have enough points for
immigration),
  >how may I live in Canada most of the year while still
conducting my business
  >both in the US and Canada through my US based company?  I also
have a
  >Canadian corporation of which I am one of the directors (one
other is a
  >Canadian citizen).  Can I work out of the Canadian corporation
as well as
  >the US corporation or should the Canadian corporation be only
used for
  >marketing in Canada and not as a service company in Canada?
In other words,
  >if my work in Canada is billed through my US company, may I
live most of the
  >time in Canada.  I will file Canadian taxes, but under what
"status" am I
  >listed?  Also, can I get health insurance coverage while in
Canada.  As a
  >self-employed person in the US, of course, I am used to
carrying my own
  >insurance because I have not employer paid insurance.  Thank
you so much for
  >any help you can give me.
  >
  >===========================================
  >david ingram replies:
  >
  >First of all you need to establish what sort of visa you are
working under.
  >You can NOT just come across the border and work here and the
ownership of a
  >Canadian corporation which you perform services for absolutely
makes your
  >working in Canada illegal.
  >
  >I hope that the year end of the Canadian corporation is Dec
31.  Because,
  >the ownership of 50% of a Canadian Corporation by an American
means that you
  >have to file form 5471 with the US IRS - failure to file the
5471 has a fine
  >of $10,000 for the first 90 days and $10,000 every 30 days
after for a total
  >of $50,000.
  >
  >Whether the work is billed through the Canadian corporation or
the US
  >corporation, you need a status.
  >
  >It could be that you qualify as a management consultant under
NAFTA but you
  >still need a visa.
  >
  >Whether you are here legally or not, if you are in Canada more
than 183
  >days, you are taxable in Canada on your world income and your
corporation
  >must also file a Canadian Income Tax return.
  >
  >You need to have a serious conversation with a Canadian
Immigration Lawyer
  >or member of the Canadian Society of Immigration consultants
who deals with
  >Americans and NAFTA.
  >
  >If you think you are a NAFTA candidate, I would be happy to
help you.
  >
  >===================
  >Phone consultations are $400 for 15 minutes to 50 minutes
(professional
  >hour).
  >
  >This is not intended to be definitive but in general I am
quoting $800 to
  >$2,000 for a dual country tax return.
  >
  >$800 would be one T4 slip one W2 slip one or two interest
slips and you
  >lived in one country only - no self employment or rentals or
capital gains -
  >you did not move into or out of the country in this year.
  >
  >$1,000 would be the same with one rental
  >
  >$1,200 would be the same with one business no rental
  >
  >$1,200 would be the minimum with a move in or out of the
country. These are
  >complicated because of the back and forth foreign tax
credits. - The IRS
  >says a foreign tax credit takes 1 hour and 53 minutes.
  >
  >$1,500 would be the minimum with a rental or two in the
country you do not
  >live in or a rental and a business and foreign tax credits  no
move in or
  >out
  >
  >$2,000 would be all of the above and you moved in and out of
the country.
  >
  >This is just a guideline for US / Canadian returns
  >
  >We will still prepare Canadian only (lives in Canada, no US
connection
  >period) with a three or four slips and no capital gains, etc.
for $125.00
  >up.
  >
  >With a Rental for $300
  >
  >A Business for $300 - Rental and business likely $400
  >
  >And an American only (lives in the US with no Canadian income
or filing
  >period) with about the same things in the same range with a
little bit more
  >if there is a state return.
  >
  >Moving in or out of the country or part year earnings in the
US will ALWAYS
  >be $400 and up.
  >
  >TDF 90-22.1 forms are $25 for the first and $10.00 each after
that when part
  >of a tax return.
  >
  >8891 forms are generally $50.00 to $100.00 each.
  >
  >18 RRSPs would be $900.00 - (maybe amalgamate a couple)
  >
  >Capital gains *sales)  are likely $50.00 for the first and
$20.00 each after
  >that.
  >
  >Just a guideline not etched in stone.
  >
  >
  >
  >
  >David Ingram's US / Canada Services
  >US / Canada / Mexico tax, Immigration and working Visa
Specialists
  >US / Canada Real Estate Specialists
  >My Home office is at:
  >4466 Prospect Road
  >North Vancouver,  BC, CANADA, V7N 3L7
  >Cell (604) 657-8451 -
  >(604) 980-0321 Fax (604) 980-0325
  >
  >Calls welcomed from 10 AM to 10 PM 7 days a week  Vancouver
(LA) time -
  >(please do not fax or phone outside of those hours as this is
a home office)
  >
  >email to taxman at centa.com <mailto:taxman at centa.com>
  >www.centa.com <http://www.centa.com/>  www.david-ingram.com
  ><http://www.david-ingram.com/>
  >
  >Disclaimer:  This question has been answered without detailed
information or
  >consultation and is to be regarded only as general comment.
Nothing in
  >this message is or should be construed as advice in any
particular
  >circumstances. No contract exists between the reader and the
author and any
  >and all non-contractual duties are expressly denied. All
readers should
  >obtain formal advice from a competent and appropriately
qualified legal
  >practitioner or tax specialist for expert help, assistance,
preparation, or
  >consultation  in connection with personal or business affairs
such as at
  >www.centa.com <http://www.centa.com> . If you forward this
message, this
  >disclaimer must be included."
  >
  >
  >Be ALERT,  the world needs more "lerts"
  >
  >
  >David Ingram gives expert income tax & immigration help to
non-resident
  >Americans & Canadians from New York to California to Saudi
Arabia to Mexico
  >to China or Chile - Cross border, dual citizen - out of
country investments
  >are all handled with competence & authority.
  >
  >New York, Boston, Sacramento, Minneapolis, Salem, Wheeling,
Philadelphia,
  >Pittsburgh, Atlanta, Pensacola, Miami, St Petersburg, Naples,
Fort Myers,
  >Cape Coral, Orlando, Atlanta, Arlington, Washington, Hudson,
Green Bay,
  >Minot, Portland, Seattle, St John, St John's, Fredericton,
Quebec, Moncton,
  >Truro, Atlanta, Charleston, San Francisco, Los Angeles, San
Diego,
  >Sacramento, Taos, Grand Canyon, Reno, Las Vegas, Phoenix, Sun
City, Tulsa,
  >Monteray, Carmel, Morgantown, Bemidji, Sandpointe, Pocatello,
Bellingham,
  >Custer, Grand Forks, Lead, Rapid City, Mitchell, Kansas City,
Lawrence,
  >Houston, Albany, Framingham, Cambridge, London, Paris, Prince
George, Prince
  >Rupert, Whitehorse, Anchorage, Fairbanks, Frankfurt, The
Hague, Lisbon,
  >Madrid, Atlanta, Myrtle Beach, Key West, Cape Coral, Fort
Meyers,   Berlin,
  >Hamburg
  >Warsaw, Auckland, Wellington, Honolulu, Maui, Kuwait, Molokai,
Beijing,
  >Shanghai, Tokyo, Manilla, Kent, Winnipeg, Saskatoon, Regina,
Red Deer, Olds,
  >Medicine Hat, Lethbridge, Moose Jaw, Brandon, Portage La
Prairie, Davidson,
  >Craik, Edmonton, Calgary, Victoria, Vancouver, Burnaby,
Surrey, Edinburgh,
  >Dublin, Belfast, Glasgow, Copenhagen, Oslo, Munich, Sydney,
Nanaimo,
  >Brisbane, Melbourne, Darwin, Perth, Athens, Rome, Berne,
Zurich, Kyoto,
  >Nanking, Rio De Janeiro, Brasilia, Colombo, Buenos Aries,
Squamish,
  >Churchill, Lima, Santiago, Abbotsford, Cologne, Yorkshire,
Hope, Penticton,
  >Kelowna, Vernon, Fort MacLeod, Deer Lodge, Springfield, St
Louis, Centralia,
  >Bradford, Stratford on Avon, Niagara Falls, Atlin, Fort
Nelson, Fort St
  >James, Red Deer, Drumheller, Fortune, Red Bank, Marystown,
Cape Spears,
  >Truro, Charlottetown, Summerside, Niagara Falls, Albany
Zimbabwe
  >
  >  David Ingram expert income tax help and preparation of US
Canada Mexico
  >non-resident and cross border returns with rental dividend
wages
  >self-employed and royalty foreign tax credits
  >Alaska,  Alabama,  Arkansas,  Arizona,
  >California,  Colorado, Connecticut,
  >Delaware, District of Columbia,  Florida,
  >Garland, Georgia,  Hawaii,  Idaho,  Illinois,
  >Indiana,  Iowa,  Kansas,  Kentucky,
  >Louisiana,  Maine,  Maryland,
  >Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota,
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  >Nevada, New Hampshire,  New Jersey,
  >New Mexico, New York, North Carolina,
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  >Pennsylvania,  Rhode Island,  Rockwall,
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  >and Dallas Houston Rockwall Garland
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deals on a
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Kuwait, Dubai,
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France,
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Iceland, Cuba,
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Rockwall, Dallas,
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border transactions
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